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Chapter 16
Active Filter Design Techniques
Literature Number SLOA088

Excerpted from

Op Amps for Everyone
Literature Number: SLOD006A

Chapter 16

Active Filter Design Techniques
Thomas Kugelstadt

16.1 Introduction
What is a filter?
A filter is a device that passes electric signals at certain frequencies or
frequency ranges while preventing the passage of others. — Webster.
Filter circuits are used in a wide variety of applications. In the field of telecommunication,
band-pass filters are used in the audio frequency range (0 kHz to 20 kHz) for modems
and speech processing. High-frequency band-pass filters (several hundred MHz) are
used for channel selection in telephone central offices. Data acquisition systems usually
require anti-aliasing low-pass filters as well as low-pass noise filters in their preceding signal conditioning stages. System power supplies often use band-rejection filters to suppress the 60-Hz line frequency and high frequency transients.
In addition, there are filters that do not filter any frequencies of a complex input signal, but
just add a linear phase shift to each frequency component, thus contributing to a constant
time delay. These are called all-pass filters.
At high frequencies (> 1 MHz), all of these filters usually consist of passive components
such as inductors (L), resistors (R), and capacitors (C). They are then called LRC filters.
In the lower frequency range (1 Hz to 1 MHz), however, the inductor value becomes very
large and the inductor itself gets quite bulky, making economical production difficult.
In these cases, active filters become important. Active filters are circuits that use an operational amplifier (op amp) as the active device in combination with some resistors and
capacitors to provide an LRC-like filter performance at low frequencies (Figure 16–1).








Figure 16–1. Second-Order Passive Low-Pass and Second-Order Active Low-Pass

Fundamentals of Low-Pass Filters

This chapter covers active filters. It introduces the three main filter optimizations (Butterworth, Tschebyscheff, and Bessel), followed by five sections describing the most common
active filter applications: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-rejection, and all-pass filters. Rather than resembling just another filter book, the individual filter sections are written in a cookbook style, thus avoiding tedious mathematical derivations. Each section
starts with the general transfer function of a filte...
Chapter 16
Active Filter Design Techniques
Literature Number SLOA088
Excerpted from
Op Amps for Everyone
Literature Number: SLOD006A
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