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Journal of Membrane Science 287 (2007) 162–179

Review

Polymeric membrane pervaporation
P. Shao ∗ , R.Y.M. Huang
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L 3G1
Received 8 October 2005; received in revised form 8 October 2006; accepted 22 October 2006
Available online 7 November 2006

Abstract
Pervaporation is an efficient membrane process for liquid separation. The past decades had witnessed substantial progress and exciting breakthroughs in both the fundamental and application aspect of pervaporation. This review provided an analytical overview on the potential of
pervaporation for separating liquid mixtures in terms of the solubility parameter and the kinetic parameter of solvents. Focus of the review was
given to the fundamental understanding of the membrane. Research progress, challenges and opportunities, and the prospect of pervaporation
were also discussed. The thermodynamic approach of pervaporation, featuring emphasizing membrane/species interactions, though gained great
successes in the past decades, is now facing its toughest challenge in the org–org separation. A kinetic era of pervaporation, featuring emphasizing
diffusion selectivity, as well as the synergy between the selective diffusion and sorption, is in the making, and this approach will eventually find
solutions to the challenging org–org separation.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pervaporation; Review; Solution-diffusion; Solubility parameter; Kinetic diameter; Polymeric membrane

Contents
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pervaporation in terms of the Hansen solubility parameter and the kinetic diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fundamentals of pervaporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1. Solution-Diffusion theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Modified Solution–Diffusion theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Journal of Membrane Science 287 (2007) 162–179
Review
Polymeric membrane pervaporation
P. Shao
, R.Y.M. Huang
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L 3G1
Received 8 October 2005; received in revised form 8 October 2006; accepted 22 October 2006
Available online 7 November 2006
Abstract
Pervaporation is an efficient membrane process for liquid separation. The past decades had witnessed substantial progress and exciting break-
throughs in both the fundamental and application aspect of pervaporation. This review provided an analytical overview on the potential of
pervaporation for separating liquid mixtures in terms of the solubility parameter and the kinetic parameter of solvents. Focus of the review was
given to the fundamental understanding of the membrane. Research progress, challenges and opportunities, and the prospect of pervaporation
were also discussed. The thermodynamic approach of pervaporation, featuring emphasizing membrane/species interactions, though gained great
successes in the past decades, is now facing its toughest challenge in the org–org separation. A kinetic era of pervaporation, featuring emphasizing
diffusion selectivity, as well as the synergy between the selective diffusion and sorption, is in the making, and this approach will eventually find
solutions to the challenging org–org separation.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pervaporation; Review; Solution-diffusion; Solubility parameter; Kinetic diameter; Polymeric membrane
Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 162
2. Pervaporation in terms of the Hansen solubility parameter and the kinetic diameter ............................................ 163
3. Fundamentals of pervaporation ........................................................................................... 165
3.1. Solution-Diffusion theory .......................................................................................... 165
3.2. Modified Solution–Diffusion theories ............................................................................... 165
4. A closer view of the pervaporation membranes ............................................................................. 167
5. The coupled transport in pervaporation membranes ......................................................................... 168
6. Structural stability of composite pervaporation membranes .................................................................. 169
7. Pervaporation research progress, challenges and opportunities ............................................................... 170
7.1. Organic solvent dehydration ....................................................................................... 170
7.2. Dilute organics removal from water ................................................................................. 171
7.3. Org–org separations ............................................................................................... 172
8. Commercial and engineering aspects of pervaporation ...................................................................... 174
9. Concluding remarks ..................................................................................................... 174
Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................... 175
Appendix A. The Hansen solubility parameters of various pervaporation-important solvents .................................. 175
References ............................................................................................................. 175
Corresponding author. Present address: GE China Technology Center,
Shanghai 201203, China. Tel.: +86 21 50504666; fax: +86 21 50806522.
E-mail address: pinghai.shao@ge.com (P. Shao).
1. Introduction
Pervaporation is a membrane process for liquid separation
[1,2], a polymeric or zeolite membrane [3–5] usually serves
the separating barrier for the process. When a membrane is
0376-7388/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2006.10.043
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