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Giáo trình Marketing

Được đăng lên bởi Nguyen Manh Ha
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Markets
Topic 1

09/21/15

1

Topic 1 - Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.

09/21/15

Basic economic concepts
Market Definitions
Characteristics of a market
Basic market structures

2

1. Definition of economics
"Economics is concerned with the
efficient use of LIMITED productive
resources for the purposes of attaining the
maximum satisfaction of our (unlimited)
material wants." (Jackson, page 3)
Other definition: Economics is how an entity (individual, firm, government,
nation) make choice on allocating scarce or limited resources to satisfy his
unlimited wants.

09/21/15

3

What is the
basic economic problem?
Providing for people’s
wants and needs in a
world of scarcity

4

What is meant by
scarcity?
The condition in which wants are
forever greater than the
available supply of time,
goods, and resources
(Scarcity should not be confused with
poverty)
5

What does scarcity
force us to do?
It forces us to
make choices

6

Basic Economic Questions
Limited resources

Unlimited needs and wants

Scarcity
=> Choices must be made about:
•

What to produce?

•For whom to produce?
• How much to produce?
• At what price to sell?
09/21/15

7

Choice and Opportunity Cost
Choice involves sacrifice., i.e. choosing
one thing means leaving the other things.
 Rational choice – choices involve
weighing up the benefit of an activity
against its opportunity cost.
 Opportunity cost refers to the cost of an
activity measured in terms of the best
alternative forgone.


09/21/15

8

What are economic
resources?
The basic categories of
inputs used to
produce goods and
services
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What are the four
categories of resources?
Land
 Labor
 Capital
 Entrepreneurship&
Managerment skill


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What is a
land resource?
Any natural resource provided
by nature.
Land

includes anything natural above
and below the ground such as forests,
gold, diamond, oil, rivers, lakes, seas,
air, the sun, the moon, etc.

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What is labor?
The mental and physical capacity
of workers to produce goods and
services

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What is capital?
The physical plants,
machinery, and equipment
used to produce other
goods

13

What is
financial capital?
The money used to
purchase capital

14

What is
entrepreneurship?
The creative ability of
individuals to seek profits by
combining resources to
produce innovative products.

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Land
Land

Labor
Labor

Capital
Capital

Entrepreneurship
organizes
Entrepreneurship organizes
resources
to
produce
goods
resources to produce goods
and
services
and services
16

What econ...
09/21/15 1
Markets
Topic 1
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