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ASA Manual CHAP 8 NEW

22-04-2004

14:41

Page 1

CONTENTS
8. Chemical analyses

3

8.1. Moisture

3

8.2. Ash

5

8.3. Protein

5

8.4. Protein quality

8

8.4.1. Urease Index

9

8.4.2. KOH protein solubility

10

8.4.3. Protein Dispersibility Index (PDI)

11

8.4.4. Protein quality in ruminants

13

8.4.4.1. In situ technique

13

8.4.4.2. In vitro technique

14

8.5. Amino acids

15

8.6. Crude fiber

16

8.7. Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF)

17

8.8. Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)

19

8.9. Lignin

20

8.9.1. Klason lignin

20

8.9.2. Permanganate lignin

21

8.10. Starch

22

8.10.1. Polarimetric starch determination

22

8.10.2. Enzymatic or colorimetric starch determination

24

8.11. Non Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) and Monosaccharides

26

8.12. Ether Extracts

28

8.13. Lipid quality

28

8.13.1. Moisture

29

8.13.2. Insoluble impurities

29

8.13.3. Unsaponifiable matter

30

8.13.4. Iodine value

32

8.13.5. Acid value

33

8.13.6. Lipid oxidation

33

8.13.6.1. Peroxide value

35

8.13.6.2. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA)

36

8.13.6.3. Anisidine value

36

8.13.6.4. Lipid stability tests

37

8.13.6.4.1. AOM (Active Oxygen Method)

37

8.13.6.4.2. OSI (Oil Stability Index)

37

ASA Manual CHAP 8 NEW

22-04-2004

14:41

Page 2

8.13.7. Fatty acid profile
8.14. Minerals

38
39

8.14.1. Calcium

39

8.14.2. Phosphorus

40

8.14.3. Sodium chloride

41

8.15. Isoflavones

42

8.16. Antinutritional factors

43

8.16.1. Trypsin inhibitors

43

8.16.2. Soy antigens

45

8.16.3. Lectins

46

8.17. Mycotoxins; rapid tests

48

8.17.1. Ochratoxin

49

8.17.2. Zearalenone

49

8.17.3. Fumonisins

49

8.17.4. Aflatoxins

50

8.17.5. Deoxynivalenol

50

8.18. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

51

ASA Manual CHAP 8 NEW

22-04-2004

14:41

Page 3

8. CHEMICAL ANALYSES
The nutritional quality of a feed ingredient, and thus soybean products, is
dependent on the content of several chemical elements and compounds which
carry a nutritional function. These elements and compounds are referred to as feed
nutrients. When feeding animals, nutritionists select a combination of ingredients
that supply the right amounts of a series of feed nutrients. Therefore, when preparing
rations, ingredients are treated as carriers of feed nutrients. Thus, the quality and
value of a given ingredient will largely depend on the concentration of its nutrients.
Because determining the content of all feed nutrients is extraordinarily time
consuming and almost impossible, nutritionists use di...
CONTENTS
8. Chemical analyses 3
8.1. Moisture 3
8.2. Ash 5
8.3. Protein 5
8.4. Protein quality 8
8.4.1. Urease Index 9
8.4.2. KOH protein solubility 10
8.4.3. Protein Dispersibility Index (PDI) 11
8.4.4. Protein quality in ruminants 13
8.4.4.1. In situ technique 13
8.4.4.2. In vitro technique 14
8.5. Amino acids 15
8.6. Crude fiber 16
8.7. Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) 17
8.8. Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) 19
8.9. Lignin 20
8.9.1. Klason lignin 20
8.9.2. Permanganate lignin 21
8.10. Starch 22
8.10.1. Polarimetric starch determination 22
8.10.2. Enzymatic or colorimetric starch determination 24
8.11. Non Starch Polysaccharides (NSP) and Monosaccharides 26
8.12. Ether Extracts 28
8.13. Lipid quality 28
8.13.1. Moisture 29
8.13.2. Insoluble impurities 29
8.13.3. Unsaponifiable matter 30
8.13.4. Iodine value 32
8.13.5. Acid value 33
8.13.6. Lipid oxidation 33
8.13.6.1. Peroxide value 35
8.13.6.2. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) 36
8.13.6.3. Anisidine value 36
8.13.6.4. Lipid stability tests 37
8.13.6.4.1. AOM (Active Oxygen Method) 37
8.13.6.4.2. OSI (Oil Stability Index) 37
ASA Manual CHAP 8 NEW 22-04-2004 14:41 Page 1
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