Thinking fast and slow

Được đăng lên bởi builinh
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In memory of Amos Tversky

Part I. Two Systems
1. The Characters of the Story
2. Attention and Effort
3. The Lazy Controller
4. The Associative Machine
5. Cognitive Ease
6. Norms, Surprises, and Causes
7. A Machine for Jumping to Conclusions
8. How Judgments Happen
9. Answering an Easier Question
Part II. Heuristics and Biases
10. The Law of Small Numbers
11. Anchors
12. The Science of Availability
13. Availability, Emotion, and Risk
14. Tom W’s Specialty

15. Linda: Less is More
16. Causes Trump Statistics
17. Regression to the Mean
18. Taming Intuitive Predictions
Part III. Overconfidence
19. The Illusion of Understanding
20. The Illusion of Validity
21. Intuitions Vs. Formulas
22. Expert Intuition: When Can We Trust It?
23. The Outside View
24. The Engine of Capitalism
Part IV. Choices
25. Bernoulli’s Errors
26. Prospect Theory
27. The Endowment Effect
28. Bad Events
29. The Fourfold Pattern
30. Rare Events
31. Risk Policies

32. Keeping Score
33. Reversals
34. Frames and Reality
Part V. Two Selves
35. Two Selves
36. Life as a Story
37. Experienced Well-Being
38. Thinking About Life




Appendix B: Choices, Values, and Frames


Every author, I suppose, has in mind a setting in which readers of his or her
work could benefit from having read it. Mine is the proverbial office
watercooler, where opinions are shared and gossip is exchanged. I hope
to enrich the vocabulary that people use when they talk about the
judgments and choices of others, the company’s new policies, or a
colleague’s investment decisions. Why be concerned with gossip?
Because it is much easier, as well as far more enjoyable, to identify and
label the mistakes of others than to recognize our own. Questioning what
we believe and want is difficult at the best of times, and especially difficult
when we most need to do it, but we can benefit from the informed opinions
of others. Many of us spontaneously anticipate how friends and colleagues
will evaluate our choices; the quality and content of these anticipated
judgments therefore matters. The expectation of intelligent gossip is a
powerful motive for serious self-criticism, more powerful than New Year
resolutions to improve one’s decision making at work and at home.
To be a good diagnostician, a physician needs to acquire a large set of
labels for diseases, each of which binds an idea of the illness and its
symptoms, p...
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