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Design and control of a longtraveling nanopositioning stage

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Precision Engineering 34 (2010) 497–506

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Precision Engineering
journal homepage: 

Design and control of a long-traveling nano-positioning stage
Chien-Hung Liu a , Wen-Yuh Jywe b,c,∗ , Yeau-Ren Jeng d , Tung-Hui Hsu d , Yi-tsung Li b
a

Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, 632 Yunlin, Taiwan, ROC
Institute of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, 632 Yunlin, Taiwan, ROC
c
Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan, ROC
d
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung-Cheng University, 621 Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 12 March 2009
Received in revised form
22 December 2009
Accepted 4 January 2010
Available online 11 January 2010
Keywords:
Dual-Axis Long-Traveling Nano-Positioning
Stage
Ball-screw
3-DOF piezo-stage

a b s t r a c t
In this paper, a Dual-Axis Long-Traveling Nano-Positioning Stage (DALTNPS) is presented. In order to
extend the traveling and increase the accuracy, the two sorts of stages, a traditional ball-screw stage and
a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) piezo-stage, were composed. The traditional ball-screw stage which
is composed of two guide-ways and a ball-screw at each axis is a long-travel stage, and the 3-DOF piezostage, which is composed of three piezoelectric actuators and four translation–rotation mechanisms,
is a high precision stage. In addition, a 3-DOF measuring system and a PID controller are composed of
a 3-DOF closed-loop controller and applied to implement the DALTNPS. The measuring system which
is composed of two laser interferometers and two plane mirrors is a 3-DOF optical measuring system.
Thus, the position at the x and y axes and the rotation around the z axis can be obtained and they are
the responses of DALTNPS. Finally, the experiment results evidence that the DALTNPS is characterized
by long-travel, high linear accuracy, high rotation accuracy, high contouring accuracy and high motion
speed.
© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Advanced technologies are constantly researched in the semiconductor industry, in order to manufacture high quality products,
and precision stage technology is one such technology. Thus, precision stages are continuously developed, and can be divided into
the friction-stage [1–3], the inchworm-stage [4–6], the elast...
Precision Engineering 34 (2010) 497–506
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Precision Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/precision
Design and control of a long-traveling nano-positioning stage
Chien-Hung Liu
a
, Wen-Yuh Jywe
b,c,
, Yeau-Ren Jeng
d
, Tung-Hui Hsu
d
, Yi-tsung Li
b
a
Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, 632 Yunlin, Taiwan, ROC
b
Institute of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Formosa University, 632 Yunlin, Taiwan, ROC
c
Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taiwan, ROC
d
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung-Cheng University, 621 Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC
article info
Article history:
Received 12 March 2009
Received in revised form
22 December 2009
Accepted 4 January 2010
Available online 11 January 2010
Keywords:
Dual-Axis Long-Traveling Nano-Positioning
Stage
Ball-screw
3-DOF piezo-stage
abstract
In this paper, a Dual-Axis Long-Traveling Nano-Positioning Stage (DALTNPS) is presented. In order to
extend the traveling and increase the accuracy, the two sorts of stages, a traditional ball-screw stage and
a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-DOF) piezo-stage, were composed. The traditional ball-screw stage which
is composed of two guide-ways and a ball-screw at each axis is a long-travel stage, and the 3-DOF piezo-
stage, which is composed of three piezoelectric actuators and four translation–rotation mechanisms,
is a high precision stage. In addition, a 3-DOF measuring system and a PID controller are composed of
a 3-DOF closed-loop controller and applied to implement the DALTNPS. The measuring system which
is composed of two laser interferometers and two plane mirrors is a 3-DOF optical measuring system.
Thus, the position at the x and y axes and the rotation around the z axis can be obtained and they are
the responses of DALTNPS. Finally, the experiment results evidence that the DALTNPS is characterized
by long-travel, high linear accuracy, high rotation accuracy, high contouring accuracy and high motion
speed.
© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Advanced technologies are constantly researched in the semi-
conductor industry, in order to manufacture high quality products,
and precision stage technology is one such technology. Thus, preci-
sion stages are continuously developed, and can be divided into
the friction-stage [1–3], the inchworm-stage [4–6], the elastic
deformation-stage [7–9] and the parallel-stage [10–12].
The moving source of friction-stages is friction force. In 1987,
Pohl [1] developed a dynamic piezoelectric translation device
whose resolution and velocity were 0.04–0.2 m and 0.2 mm/s,
respectively, via the inertia and the friction theorem. The maxi-
mum loading of this stage was 1 kg. In 1996, Tipissev and Golubok
[2] presented three variants of simple positioning devices, hav-
ing step lengths adjustable in the range from 10 to 1000 nm.
In 2000, Breguet et al. [3] presented several methods for piezo-
actuators in motion control over a large dynamic range. The devices
included monolithic 2-DOF actuators with mechanical amplifica-
tion, stick-slip actuators and 6-DOF designs of micro-stages. In
addition, their maximum travel, resolution and maximum velocity
were ±15 mm, 200 nm and ±5 mm/s, respectively. Friction-stages
have the property of the large travel range. Nevertheless, they have
Corresponding author at: Institute of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engi-
neering, National Formosa University, 632 Yunlin, Taiwan, ROC.
E-mail address: jywe@nfu.edu.tw (W.-Y. Jywe).
some drawbacks such as their lower loading ability, complicated
set-up and the low accuracy of the set-up. Furthermore, the identi-
fication of the friction function is difficult in the control. Therefore,
it is difficult to achieve their optimum performance.
The multi-piezo-actuator was been applied to control the move-
ment of inchworm-stages. In 1985, Mamin et al. [4] presented the
two axes micro-stage. In order to allow it to be applied to the
scanning of tunneling microscopes, it had feet coated with thin
metal and insulating films. Furthermore, its step could be varied
from 25 to 400 nm. In 1991, Dudnikov et al. [5] presented the
high precision xy stage, which included four piezo-actuators,
four electromagnetic feet with activation and a ferromagnetic base
plate. Its accuracy, travel range and velocity were 50 nm, 200 mm
and 4 mm/s, respectively. In 2000, Cusin et al. [6] presented the sin-
gle axis positioning stage, using the inchworm theorem. Its travel
range, resolution and velocity were 4 mm, 40 nm and 300 m/s,
respectively. Inchworm-stages are characterized by long-travel
range. However, they also have some drawbacks such as their
lower loading ability, complicated set-up and the low accuracy of
the set-up. Furthermore, when they are working, more energy is
depleted.
The elastic deformation of flexure results in the movement of
elastic deformation-stages. Previously, structures of deformation-
stages were performed via linear cutting. Their size was smaller,
but their rigidity was not sufficient. In 1987, Matey et al. [7]
presented the xyz precision positioning mechanism which was
composed of a bimorph piezoelectric. Its resolution and traveling
0141-6359/$ see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2010.01.003
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