Fundamentals of Machine Desgn

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Fundamentals of Machine

Fundamentals of
machine design
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur

Design philosophy
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives
At the end of this lesson, the students should have the knowledge of

Basic concept of design in general.
Concept of machine design and their types.
Factors to be considered in machine design.

Design is essentially a decision-making process. If we have a problem, we need
to design a solution. In other words, to design is to formulate a plan to satisfy a
particular need and to create something with a physical reality. Consider for an
example, design of a chair. A number of factors need be considered first:
(a) The purpose for which the chair is to be designed such as whether it is to
be used as an easy chair, an office chair or to accompany a dining table.
(b) Whether the chair is to be designed for a grown up person or a child.
(c) Material for the chair, its strength and cost need to be determined.
(d) Finally, the aesthetics of the designed chair.
Almost everyone is involved in design, in one way or the other, in our daily lives
because problems are posed and they need to be solved.


Basic concept of machine design

Decision making comes in every stage of design. Consider two cars of different
makes. They may both be reasonable cars and serve the same purpose but the
designs are different. The designers consider different factors and come to
certain conclusions leading to an optimum design. Market survey gives an
indication of what people want. Existing norms play an important role. Once a
critical decision is made, the rest of the design features follow. For example,

Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur

once we decide the engine capacity, the shape and size, then the subsequent
course of the design would follow. A bad decision leads to a bad design and a
bad product.
Design may be for different products and with the present specialization and
knowledge bank, we have a long list of design disciplines e.g. ship design,
building design, process design, bridge design, clothing or fashion design and so
Here we are concerned with machine design. We now define a machine as a
combination of resisting bodies with successfully constrained relative motions
which is used to transform other forms of energy into mechanical energy or
transmit and modify available energy to do some useful work. If it converts heat
into mechanical energy we then call it a hea...
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