infrared detectors

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Progress in Quantum Electronics 27 (2003) 59210
Infrared detectors: status and trends
Antoni Rogalski*
Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 49 00-908 Warsaw, 2 Kaliskiego Street,
Warsaw 49-00-908, Poland
At present efforts in infrared detector research are directed towards improving the
performance of single element devices, large electronically scanned arrays and higher
operating temperature. Another important aim is to make IR detectors cheaper and more
convenient to use. All these aspects are discussed in this paper.
Investigations of the performance of infrared thermal detectors as compared to photon
detectors are presented. Due to fundamental different types of noise, these two classes of
detectors have different dependencies of detectivities on wavelength and temperature. Next, an
overview of focal plane array architecture is given with emphasise on monolithic and hybrid
structures. The objective of the next sections is to present the status of different types of
detectors: HgCdTe photodiodes, Schottky-barrier photoemissive devices, silicon and
germanium detectors, InSb photodiodes, alternative to HgCdTe III–V and II–VI ternary
alloy detectors, monolithic lead chalcogenide photodiodes, quantum well and quantum dot
infrared photodetectors.
Final part of the paper is devoted to uncooled two-dimensional arrays of thermal detectors.
Three most important detection mechanisms, namely, resistive bolometer, pyroelectric
detectors and termopile are considered. The development of outstanding technical
achievements in uncooled thermal imaging is also presented.
r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 61
2. Historical aspects of modern infrared technology . . ......... 62
3. Classification of infrared detectors . . . . . . . . . . ......... 65
*Tel./fax: +48-22-685-9109.
E-mail address: rogan@wat.waw.pl (A. Rogalski).
0079-6727/03/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 0 7 9 - 6727(02)00024-1
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