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rượu whisky scotch

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Production of Scotch and Irish whiskies: their history and evolution

137

Chapter 11
Production of Scotch and Irish whiskies: their history
and evolution
T.P. Lyons
Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY, USA

Introduction
Whisky is the potable spirit obtained by distillation
of an aqueous extract of an infusion of malted
barley and other cereals that has been fermented
with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.
Various types of whisky are produced in a
number of different countries in the world. They
differ principally in the nature and proportion of
the cereals used as raw materials along with
malted barley, and also in the type of still used
for distillation.
The principal types of whisky are also
characteristic of particular geographical regions
of the world. In Scotland, the characteristic
product is manufactured using only malted barley
as the raw material; and the fermented malt mash
is distilled in relatively small pot stills.
The product, known as Scotch malt whisky, is
produced in small distilleries, of which there are
over 100 in Scotland. Scotch malt whisky is
marketed both as a straight malt whisky, many
brands of which have recently become
extremely popular throughout the world, and
also as a blend with another type of whisky
produced in Scotland known as ‘Scotch grain
whisky’ or (because it is distilled continuously in

Coffey-type patent stills) as ‘patent-still whisky’.
Most Scotch whiskies available on the
international market consist of blends with 2030% malt whisky and 70-80% grain whisky.
Within the blend, there may be as many as 2030 individual malt whiskies and grain whiskies.
These blends are, by law, matured for at least
three years but in practice this period is much
longer. Unblended Scotch malt whiskies are
usually matured for a minimum of eight years.
The cereals used in the manufacture of Scotch
grain whisky are malted barley, together with a
high proportion (up to 90%) of wheat or corn
(maize). Currently wheat is the main cereal,
chosen on the basis of cost and the attraction of
using a Scottish-grown cereal. All whiskies are
legally protected and defined, mainly because
of the huge revenues that governments obtain
from their sale. The Scotch Whisky Order (1990)
and the Scotch Whisky Act (1988), in defining
Scotch Whisky, state that to be called Scotch
Whisky spirits must be:
1. produced at a distillery in Scotland
2. from water and malted barley to which only
whole grains or other cereals may be added
3. processed at that dis...
Production of Scotch and Irish whiskies: their history and evolution 137
Chapter 11
Production of Scotch and Irish whiskies: their history
and evolution
T.P. Lyons
Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY, USA
Introduction
Whisky is the potable spirit obtained by distillation
of an aqueous extract of an infusion of malted
barley and other cereals that has been fermented
with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast.
Various types of whisky are produced in a
number of different countries in the world. They
differ principally in the nature and proportion of
the cereals used as raw materials along with
malted barley, and also in the type of still used
for distillation.
The principal types of whisky are also
characteristic of particular geographical regions
of the world. In Scotland, the characteristic
product is manufactured using only malted barley
as the raw material; and the fermented malt mash
is distilled in relatively small pot stills.
The product, known as Scotch malt whisky, is
produced in small distilleries, of which there are
over 100 in Scotland. Scotch malt whisky is
marketed both as a straight malt whisky, many
brands of which have recently become
extremely popular throughout the world, and
also as a blend with another type of whisky
produced in Scotland known as Scotch grain
whisky or (because it is distilled continuously in
Coffey-type patent stills) as patent-still whisky.
Most Scotch whiskies available on the
international market consist of blends with 20-
30% malt whisky and 70-80% grain whisky.
Within the blend, there may be as many as 20-
30 individual malt whiskies and grain whiskies.
These blends are, by law, matured for at least
three years but in practice this period is much
longer. Unblended Scotch malt whiskies are
usually matured for a minimum of eight years.
The cereals used in the manufacture of Scotch
grain whisky are malted barley, together with a
high proportion (up to 90%) of wheat or corn
(maize). Currently wheat is the main cereal,
chosen on the basis of cost and the attraction of
using a Scottish-grown cereal. All whiskies are
legally protected and defined, mainly because
of the huge revenues that governments obtain
from their sale. The Scotch Whisky Order (1990)
and the Scotch Whisky Act (1988), in defining
Scotch Whisky, state that to be called Scotch
Whisky spirits must be:
1. produced at a distillery in Scotland
2. from water and malted barley to which only
whole grains or other cereals may be added
3. processed at that distillery into a mash
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