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Chapter 1 – Soil and Earth works in construction
Chapter 2 – Calculate the earth works volume
Chapter 3 – Preparation works for the
underground construction
Chapter 4 – Soil excavation techniques
Chapter 5 – Embankment & Backfilling
Chapter 6 – Piling works and sheet piling work






General definitions of earth works and earth work projects
Soil technical features that affect construction
Classification of soil in construction



1. Classification of earth work projects
1.1. By the project durability
Permanent projects vs. Temporary projects
oPermanent projects: Projects for long-term use: road, railroad, dike, canal…
oTemporary projects: Projects in construction duration: foundation pit, ditches
for piping.

1.2. By the project shapes
Long-running shape and block shape projects
o Long-running

shape projects: dike, dam, road… projects with narrow width in
comparison with the total length of the projects.
o Block shape project: foundation, grading… projects with sizes is relatively



2. Classification of Earth works
In typical construction, earth works are classified into following works:
Excavation: reduce the elevation of the ground to the design elevation and the
volume of excavation is in positive value (V+). Ex, excavation for wide
foundation, canal, trench...
Embankment: heighten up the elevation of the ground to the design elevation
and the volume of excavation is in negative value (V-). Ex, embankment for
ground, dike, dam…
Grading or leveling: Make the ground surface flat, including excavation and
embankment, the soil amount keeps remained. Grading or leveling can be
combined with excavation or embankment. Ex, grading ground, hill, road, etc.
Removing: Remove the top un-used soil layer (humus, cultivated land,
contaminated land); remove according to removed soil thickness.
Backfilling: make the depressed area as high and flat as surrounding areas.
This task depends on surrounding ground elevations. Ex, backfilling for ditches,
foundation, the recently-built-site…



1. Definition

=> A complex environment affected by a lot of factors.
=> Features that affect considerably earth works techniques, earth
project cost, and productivity of soil-machine
2. Unit-weight of soil
Definition: weight of one volume of the soil unit in natural state




G: the weight of soil contained in V volume

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