1000 bài đọc luyện thi GMAT, GRE, LSAT có đáp án

Được đăng lên bởi Bui Cong Chuc
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GMAT RC 117Passages
一、 GMAT New 63Passages
Passage 1 (1/63)
(This passage was written in 1978.)
Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States
unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have
long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority
groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the
sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in
apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more
than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so
on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so
far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to
minority enterprises.
Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in
1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from $77 million in 1972
to $1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for
the early 1980’s is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the
next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses
dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending
themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often
need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to
perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason
reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate
purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal
estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company’s
efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business
will suffer.
A second risk is that White-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing
apportionments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course,
in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, White and minority
enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil rights
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