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The role of probiotics in aquaculture

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Veterinary Microbiology 114 (2006) 173-186

www.elsevier.com/locate/vetmic

Review

The role of
probiotics in
aquaculture
José Luis Balcázar a,*, Ignacio de Blas a, Imanol Ruiz-Zarzuela a,
David Cunningham b, Daniel Vendrell a, José Luis Múzquiz a
a

Laboratory of Fish Pathology, University of Zaragoza, c/. Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
b

Environmental Science and Occupational Safety Lab, Massachusetts Bay Community College,
Wellesley, MA, USA
Received 26 April 2005; received in revised form 7 November 2005; accepted 17 January 2006

Abstract
The increase of productivity in aquaculture has been accompanied by ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety
of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of
management practices in production cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial

diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
# 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Probiotics; Bacteria; Disease control; Aquaculture

Contents
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................
What is a probiotic?........................................................................................................................................................
Mechanisms of action.....................................................................................................................................................
3.1. Competitive exclusion...........................................................................................................................................
3.2. Source of nutrients and enzymatic contribution to digestion..............................................................................
3.3. Influence on water quality....................................................................................................................................
3.4. Enhancement of the immune response.................................................................................................................
3.5. Antiviral effects.....................................................................................................................................................
Colonization..........
Veterinary Microbiology 114 (2006) 173-186
www.elsevier.com/locate/vetmic
Review
The role of
probiotics in
aquaculture
Jo Luis Balcázar
a,
*, Ignacio de Blas
a
, Imanol Ruiz-Zarzuela
a
,
David Cunningham
b
, Daniel Vendrell
a
, Jo Luis zquiz
a
a
Laboratory of Fish Pathology, University of Zaragoza, c/. Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
b
Environmental Science and Occupational Safety Lab, Massachusetts Bay Community College,
Wellesley, MA, USA
Received 26 April 2005; received in revised form 7 November 2005; accepted 17 January 2006
Abstract
The increase of productivity in aquaculture has been accompanied by ecological impacts including emergence of a large variety
of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of
management practices in production cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial
diseases in aquaculture, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.
# 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Probiotics; Bacteria; Disease control; Aquaculture
Contents
1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................... 174
2. What is a probiotic?........................................................................................................................................................ 175
3. Mechanisms of action..................................................................................................................................................... 175
3.1. Competitive exclusion........................................................................................................................................... 175
3.2. Source of nutrients and enzymatic contribution to digestion.............................................................................. 176
3.3. Influence on water quality.................................................................................................................................... 176
3.4. Enhancement of the immune response................................................................................................................. 176
3.5. Antiviral effects..................................................................................................................................................... 177
4. Colonization.................................................................................................................................................................... 177
5. Selection of probiotics.................................................................................................................................................... 177
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