Ktl-icon-tai-lieu

Afghanistan history

Được đăng lên bởi mau-don-van-ban
Số trang: 30 trang   |   Lượt xem: 1416 lần   |   Lượt tải: 0 lần
© Lonely Planet Publications
25

History
As a country, Afghanistan’s history is less than 300 years old but it has
been playing a key role in the region for over two millennia. The map
reveals the reason: Afghanistan sits at the crossroads of Asia, sitting
astride the hinterland between Persia, Central Asia and India. These
three centrifugal forces have interacted time and again in Afghan history,
frequently dividing the country against itself. At other times, Afghanistan
has united against invaders and proved a bloody testing ground for foreign empires, as well as occasionally looking beyond its borders to form
empires of its own.

FROM THE PERSIANS TO THE GREEKS

The prehistory of Afghanistan has been little studied, but there is evidence of pastoralism and agriculture in the region from around 10,000
years ago. Lapis lazuli from Badakhshan was being traded with Mesopotamia and India for at least 7000 years, and around 1500 BC the country
became populated by the Indo-Aryans moving in from the west. Afghanistan doesn’t enter written history until around the 6th century BC,
when it became part of the Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great. The
Persians were the world’s superpower of the time, and Afghanistan was
divided into satrapies – Ariana (Herat), Arachosia (Kandahar), Bactria
(Balkh) and Gandhara (the Kabul Valley). The Bactrians in particular
were renowned fighters. At some stage during this period Zoroaster was
born in Bactria, giving rise to the Zoroastrian religion that was quickly
adopted by the Achaemenids.
Persia’s great rival was Greece, and in 334 BC Alexander the Great
launched a huge campaign against Darius III. Just 24 years old, Alexander’s
military genius quickly conquered the Mediterranean coast and the Achaemenid capital at Persepolis in modern Iran. His kingdom in ruins, Darius
fled to Afghanistan where he was betrayed by the Bactrian satrap Bessus,
who in turn proclaimed himself king. Alexander was outraged and led his
army deep into Afghanistan, sweeping through the south before crossing
the Hindu Kush and driving Bessus towards the Oxus (Amu Darya). He
captured Bactria and Bessus, who was executed for his resistance.
Afghanistan got deep into Alexander’s blood. He took his bride Roxanne in Balkh, and founded Bagram as a base for his invasion of India.
Moreover he adopted local dress, and tried to set himself up as dictator.
Only an eventual troop rebellion quelled his ambition, and he eventually
turned for home to die at Babylon in ...
25
TIMELINE
History
As a country, Afghanistan’s history is less than 300 years old but it has
been playing a key role in the region for over two millennia. The map
reveals the reason : Afghanistan sits at the crossroads of Asia, sitting
astride the hinterland between Persia, Central Asia and India. These
three centrifugal forces have interacted time and again in Afghan history,
frequently dividing the country against itself. At other times, Afghanistan
has united against invaders and proved a bloody testing ground for for-
eign empires, as well as occasionally looking beyond its borders to form
empires of its own.
FROM THE PERSIANS TO THE GREEKS
The prehistory of Afghanistan has been little studied, but there is evi-
dence of pastoralism and agriculture in the region from around 10,000
years ago. Lapis lazuli from Badakhshan was being traded with Mesopo-
tamia and India for at least 7000 years, and around 1500 BC the country
became populated by the Indo-Aryans moving in from the west. Af-
ghanistan doesn’t enter written history until around the 6th century BC,
when it became part of the Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great. The
Persians were the world’s superpower of the time, and Afghanistan was
divided into satrapies – Ariana (Herat), Arachosia (Kandahar), Bactria
(Balkh) and Gandhara (the Kabul Valley). The Bactrians in particular
were renowned fighters. At some stage during this period Zoroaster was
born in Bactria, giving rise to the Zoroastrian religion that was quickly
adopted by the Achaemenids.
Persia’s great rival was Greece, and in 334 BC Alexander the Great
launched a huge campaign against Darius III. Just 24 years old, Alexander’s
military genius quickly conquered the Mediterranean coast and the Achae-
menid capital at Persepolis in modern Iran. His kingdom in ruins, Darius
fled to Afghanistan where he was betrayed by the Bactrian satrap Bessus,
who in turn proclaimed himself king. Alexander was outraged and led his
army deep into Afghanistan, sweeping through the south before crossing
the Hindu Kush and driving Bessus towards the Oxus (Amu Darya). He
captured Bactria and Bessus, who was executed for his resistance.
Afghanistan got deep into Alexander’s blood. He took his bride Rox-
anne in Balkh, and founded Bagram as a base for his invasion of India.
Moreover he adopted local dress, and tried to set himself up as dictator.
Only an eventual troop rebellion quelled his ambition, and he eventually
turned for home to die at Babylon in 323 BC, leaving no named heir but
having conquered much of the known world.
Alexander left behind ten years of chaos in Bactria, with thousands of
Greeks stationed far from home. From the anarchy came Seleucus who
began to weld together the foundations of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom.
This Hellenistic state deep in Asia sparked a centuries-long period of
profound East-West cultural exchange, disseminating the aesthetics of
the Classical world and absorbing the influences of both the central Asian
steppe and the Indian subcontinent. Ai Khanoum, the easternmost Greek
Martin Ewans’ highly
recommended Afghani-
stan – A Short History of
its People and Politics
covers the breadth of
Afghan history from
Alexander the Great to
Hamid Karzai with a
sure hand and lightness
of touch.
330 BC
Alexander the Great invades Afghanistan
AD 128
Kanishka rules Kushan empire from Kapisa (Bagram)
Nearly half the infantry
and 95% of the cavalry
in Alexander the Great’s
entire empire had to
be stationed in Afghani-
stan to try and pacify
the country.
© Lonely Planet Publications
Afghanistan history - Trang 2
Để xem tài liệu đầy đủ. Xin vui lòng
Afghanistan history - Người đăng: mau-don-van-ban
5 Tài liệu rất hay! Được đăng lên bởi - 1 giờ trước Đúng là cái mình đang tìm. Rất hay và bổ ích. Cảm ơn bạn!
30 Vietnamese
Afghanistan history 9 10 822