Ktl-icon-tai-lieu

Finland history culture

Được đăng lên bởi luan-van
Số trang: 19 trang   |   Lượt xem: 1050 lần   |   Lượt tải: 0 lần
© Lonely Planet Publications
25

History
Finnish history is the story of a people who for centuries were a wrestling
mat between two heavyweights on either side: Sweden and Russia. The unfortunate thing about this history is that the earliest chronicles were written
by Swedes, and much of ethnic Finnish culture and events before and well
after the Swedish crusades has escaped written record altogether.

PREHISTORY
Little is known of the earliest human settlement in Finland. As the glaciers
receded at the end of the last Ice Age, the first permanent inhabitants of
what is now Finland probably began arriving around 10,000 to 12,000 years
ago. Around this time the Baltic Sea formed, flooding what was a large
freshwater lake. To this day, it’s one of the least saline of the major seas.
But Finland was almost certainly inhabited long before this period. Recent finds of worked flint tools in a cave at Kristinestad suggest sporadic
human presence as far back as 100,000 years ago, between Ice Ages.
The first settlers in Finland came from Russia and present-day Estonia.
These people hunted elk and beaver using stone tools and weapons and
gradually spread out into the whole of the region. Sites have been found
in southern Finland dating from around the eighth millennium BC.
Pottery appears in archaeological records in the late sixth millennium
BC, marking the beginning of the Late Stone Age, or Neolithic period. The
discovery of ceramics makes it easier to identify broad groups of people,
and it is clear that a new group arrived in southern Finland in 3000 BC or
thereabouts. From this point on, we can see the development of definable
Finno-Ugrian cultures. The central/northern culture, who had least cultural contact with the newcomers, have been labelled as proto-Sámi.
The Bronze Age, from around 1700 BC to 600 BC, is characterised by
strong trade contacts between southern Finland and other groups around
the Baltic Sea, and the use of stone cairns for burials.
WHY FINLAND?
The Finns call their country Suomi (swom-ee), so why is it generally known as Finland?
French may provide a clue. Fin means ‘end’, and fin de lande could easily be, if not ‘the end
of the world’, the northern end of the European land mass.
The early Romans called this land Fennia. In English the word fen describes a swampy land, and
is mostly used to refer to the low, flat water-logged land in eastern England. But Romans went to
England too, and Finland is exactly such a swampy land, and swamp in ...
25
TIMELINE
Hi s tory
Finnish history is the story of a people who for centuries were a wrestling
mat between two heavyweights on either side: Sweden and Russia. The un-
fortunate thing about this history is that the earliest chronicles were written
by Swedes, and much of ethnic Finnish culture and events before and well
after the Swedish crusades has escaped written record altogether.
PREHISTORY
Little is known of the earliest human settlement in Finland. As the glaciers
receded at the end of the last Ice Age, the first permanent inhabitants of
what is now Finland probably began arriving around 10,000 to 12,000 years
ago. Around this time the Baltic Sea formed, flooding what was a large
freshwater lake. To this day, it’s one of the least saline of the major seas.
But Finland was almost certainly inhabited long before this period. Re-
cent finds of worked flint tools in a cave at Kristinestad suggest sporadic
human presence as far back as 100,000 years ago, between Ice Ages.
The first settlers in Finland came from Russia and present-day Estonia.
These people hunted elk and beaver using stone tools and weapons and
gradually spread out into the whole of the region. Sites have been found
in southern Finland dating from around the eighth millennium BC.
Pottery appears in archaeological records in the late sixth millennium
BC, marking the beginning of the Late Stone Age, or Neolithic period. The
discovery of ceramics makes it easier to identify broad groups of people,
and it is clear that a new group arrived in southern Finland in 3000 BC or
thereabouts. From this point on, we can see the development of definable
Finno-Ugrian cultures. The central/northern culture, who had least cul-
tural contact with the newcomers, have been labelled as proto-Sámi.
The Bronze Age, from around 1700 BC to 600 BC, is characterised by
strong trade contacts between southern Finland and other groups around
the Baltic Sea, and the use of stone cairns for burials.
WHY FINLAND?
The Finns call their country Suomi (swom-ee), so why is it generally known as Finland?
French may provide a clue. Fin means ‘end’, and fin de lande could easily be, if not ‘the end
of the world’, the northern end of the European land mass.
The early Romans called this land Fennia. In English the word fen describes a swampy land, and
is mostly used to refer to the low, flat water-logged land in eastern England. But Romans went to
England too, and Finland is exactly such a swampy land, and swamp in Finnish is suo. A Finn in Finnish
is suomalainen, whereas suomaalainen (with double a) means an inhabitant of a swampy land.
The resemblance of the word suo to Suomi is too close to be ignored, but the derivation of
the name of the long-time inhabitants of Lapland, the Sámi, offers another explanation. Finland
is called Somija in Latvian, Suomija in Lithuanian and Soome in Estonian.
Unimpressed by all these references to inferior interior swampy ground, many Finns would like
their country to be called Finlandia or Fennia (in Latin) because it sounds more respectable.
Of course, Swedish-speaking Finns have always called Finland, Finland.
100,000 BC
Sporadic human presence between Ice Ages in what is
now Finland
AD 100
Tacitus refers to the ‘Fenni’, perhaps the Sámi, in the first
known historical record of the area
© Lonely Planet Publications
Finland history culture - Trang 2
Để xem tài liệu đầy đủ. Xin vui lòng
Finland history culture - Người đăng: luan-van
5 Tài liệu rất hay! Được đăng lên bởi - 1 giờ trước Đúng là cái mình đang tìm. Rất hay và bổ ích. Cảm ơn bạn!
19 Vietnamese
Finland history culture 9 10 813