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Generation of bound solitons in actively phase modulation

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Optics Communications 281 (2008) 2012–2022


Generation of bound solitons in actively phase modulation
mode-locked fiber ring resonators
N.D. Nguyen, L.N. Binh *
Centre for Telecommunications and Information Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering,
Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
Received 29 September 2007; received in revised form 19 November 2007; accepted 19 November 2007

Abstract
Bound solitons generated in actively mode-locked lasers enable new forms of pulse pairs and multiple pairs or groups of solitons in
optical transmission or logics. In this paper, we present the generation of stable bound states of multiple solitons in an active
mode-locked fiber laser using continuous phase modulation for wideband phase matching. Not only that dual-soliton bound states
but also the triple- and quadruple-soliton pulses can be established. Simulation of the generated solitons are demonstrated. We have also
prove by simulation that experimental relative phase difference and chirping caused by phase modulation of LiNbO3 modulator in the
fiber loop significantly influences the interaction between the solitons and hence their stability as they circulate in the anomalous
path-averaged dispersion fiber loop.
Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Mode-locked fiber lasers described in the above sections
can offer possible uses as important laser source for generating ultrashort soliton pulses. Recently, soliton fiber lasers
have attracted significant research interests with experimental demonstration of bound states of solitons as
predicted in some theoretical works [1,2]. These boundsoliton states have been observed mostly in passive modelocked fiber lasers [3–6]. The very short ‘‘soliton-like”
pulses are generated through passive mode locking mechanisms such as nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable
absorption. There are, however, few reports on bound solitons in active mode-locked fiber lasers. The active mode
locking offers significant advantage in the control of the
repetition rate that would be critical for optical transmission systems. Observation of bound soliton pairs was first
reported in a hybrid frequency modulation (FM) mode-

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 39 905 3475; fax: +61 39 905 3454.
E-mail address: le.nguyen.binh@eng.monash.edu.au (L.N. Binh).

0030-4018/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights re...
Generation of bound solitons in actively phase modulation
mode-locked fiber ring resonators
N.D. Nguyen, L.N. Binh
*
Centre for Telecommunications and Information Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering,
Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
Received 29 September 2007; received in revised form 19 November 2007; accepted 19 November 2007
Abstract
Bound solitons generated in actively mode-locked lasers enable new forms of pulse pairs and multiple pairs or groups of solitons in
optical transmission or logics. In this paper, we present the generation of stable bound states of multiple solitons in an active
mode-locked fiber laser using continuous phase modulation for wideband phase matching. Not only that dual-soliton bound states
but also the triple- and quadruple-soliton pulses can be established. Simulation of the generated solitons are demonstrated. We have also
prove by simulation that experimental relative phase difference and chirping caused by phase modulation of LiNbO
3
modulator in the
fiber loop significantly influences the interaction between the solitons and hence their stability as they circulate in the anomalous
path-averaged dispersion fiber loop.
Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Mode-locked fiber lasers described in the above sections
can offer possible uses as important laser source for gener-
ating ultrashort soliton pulses. Recently, soliton fiber lasers
have attracted significant research interests with experi-
mental demonstration of bound states of solitons as
predicted in some theoretical works [1,2]. These bound-
soliton states have been observed mostly in passive mode-
locked fiber lasers [3–6]. The very short ‘‘soliton-like
pulses are generated through passive mode locking mecha-
nisms such as nonlinear polarization rotation and saturable
absorption. There are, however, few reports on bound sol-
itons in active mode-locked fiber lasers. The active mode
locking offers significant advantage in the control of the
repetition rate that would be critical for optical transmis-
sion systems. Observation of bound soliton pairs was first
reported in a hybrid frequency modulation (FM) mode-
locked fiber laser [7], in which a regime of bound-soliton
pairs harmonic mode locking at 10 GHz could be gener-
ated. There are, however no report on multiple bound
soliton states. Depending on the strength of soliton interac-
tion, the bound solitons can be classified into two catego-
ries: loosely bound solitons and tightly bound solitons
with different relative phase difference between adjacent
solitons. The phase difference may take the value of p or
p/2 or any value depending on the fiber laser structures
and mode locking conditions.
In this paper, we report the bound states of multiple
solitons in an active mode-locked fiber laser using contin-
uous phase modulation or FM mechanism. By tuning the
parameters for the phase matching of the lightwaves cir-
culating in the fiber loop, not only that we could observe
the dual-soliton bound state but also the triple- and qua-
druple-soliton bound states. Relative phase difference and
chirping caused by phase modulation of LiNbO
3
modula-
tor in the fiber loop significantly influences the interaction
between the solitons and hence their stability as they cir-
culate in the anomalous path-averaged dispersion fiber
loop.
0030-4018/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2007.11.076
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 39 905 3475; fax: +61 39 905 3454.
E-mail address: le.nguyen.binh@eng.monash.edu.au (L.N. Binh).
www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Optics Communications 281 (2008) 2012–2022
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