Ktl-icon-tai-lieu

India language

Được đăng lên bởi tai-lieu-mien-phi
Số trang: 16 trang   |   Lượt xem: 1077 lần   |   Lượt tải: 1 lần
© Lonely Planet Publications
1190

Language
CONTENTS

LANGUAGE

Hindi
Pronunciation
Accommodation
Emergencies
Conversation & Essentials
Directions
Health
Language Difficulties
Numbers
Shopping & Services
Time & Dates
Transport
Tamil
Script & Transliteration
Pronunciation
Accommodation
Emergencies
Conversation & Essentials
Directions
Numbers
Shopping & Services
Time & Dates
Transport

1190
1190
1191
1192
1192
1192
1192
1193
1193
1193
1193
1194
1194
1194
1194
1194
1195
1195
1195
1195
1195
1195
1196

There is no one ‘Indian’ language as such.
This is part of the reason why English is still
widely spoken more than 50 years after the
British left India and why it’s still the official language of the judiciary.
Eighteen languages are recognised by the
constitution, and these fall into two major
groups: Indic, or Indo-Aryan, and Dravidian.
Additionally, over 1600 minor languages
and dialects were listed in the latest census.
The scope for misunderstanding can be easily appreciated!
The Indic languages are a branch of the
Indo-European group of languages (to
which English belongs). The Indic languages were spoken by the Central Asian
peoples who invaded what is now India.
The Dravidian languages such as Tamil are
native to South India, although they have
been influenced by Sanskrit and Hindi over
the years.

Most of India’s languages have their own
script, but written English can also be quite
common; in some states, such as Gujarat,
you’ll hardly see a word of it, whereas in
Himachal Pradesh virtually everything is in
English. An Rs 5 or larger banknote shows
the scripts of 14 of India’s languages. As well
as Hindi and English there’s a list of 12 other
languages: from the top, they are Assamese,
Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit,
Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. (See the boxed text,
opposite, for more information.)
Major efforts have been made to promote Hindi as the national language of
India and to gradually phase out English. A
stumbling block to this plan is that Hindi is
the predominant language in the north, but
it bears little relation to the Dravidian languages of the south. Subsequently, very few
people in the south speak Hindi. It is from
here, particularly in the state of Tamil
Nadu, that the most vocal opposition to the
countrywide adoption of Hindi comes,
along with the strongest support for the
retention of English.
For many educated Indians, English is
virtually their first language, and for the
large number...
LANGUAGE
1190
CONTENTS
Language
Most of India’s languages have their own
script, but written English can also be quite
common; in some states, such as Gujarat,
you’ll hardly see a word of it, whereas in
Himachal Pradesh virtually everything is in
English. An Rs 5 or larger banknote shows
the scripts of 14 of India’s languages. As well
as Hindi and English there’s a list of 12 other
languages: from the top, they are Assamese,
Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Ma-
layalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit,
Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. (See the boxed text,
opposite, for more information.)
Major efforts have been made to pro-
mote Hindi as the national language of
India and to gradually phase out English. A
stumbling block to this plan is that Hindi is
the predominant language in the north, but
it bears little relation to the Dravidian lan-
guages of the south. Subsequently, very few
people in the south speak Hindi. It is from
here, particularly in the state of Tamil
Nadu, that the most vocal opposition to the
countrywide adoption of Hindi comes,
along with the strongest support for the
retention of English.
For many educated Indians, English is
virtually their first language, and for the
large number of Indians who speak more
than one language, English is often their
second tongue. Thus it’s very easy to get
around India with English, but it’s always
good to know at least a little of the local
language.
HINDI
Hindi is written from left to right in Deva-
nagari script. While the script may be un-
familiar, English speakers will recognise
many of Hindi’s grammatical features.
For a far more comprehensive guide to
Hindi, get a copy of Lonely Planet’s Hindi,
Urdu & Bengali Phrasebook.
PRONUNCIATION
Most Hindi sounds are similar to their Eng-
lish counterparts, but there are a few tricky
ones. There’s a difference between ‘aspirated’
and ‘unaspirated’ consonants – the aspirated
There is no one ‘Indian’ language as such.
This is part of the reason why English is still
widely spoken more than 50 years after the
British left India and why it’s still the offi-
cial language of the judiciary.
Eighteen languages are recognised by the
constitution, and these fall into two major
groups: Indic, or Indo-Aryan, and Dravidian.
Additionally, over 1600 minor languages
and dialects were listed in the latest census.
The scope for misunderstanding can be eas-
ily appreciated!
The Indic languages are a branch of the
Indo-European group of languages (to
which English belongs). The Indic lan-
guages were spoken by the Central Asian
peoples who invaded what is now India.
The Dravidian languages such as Tamil are
native to South India, although they have
been influenced by Sanskrit and Hindi over
the years.
Hindi 1190
Pronunciation 1190
Accommodation 1191
Emergencies 1192
Conversation & Essentials 1192
Directions 1192
Health 1192
Language Difficulties 1193
Numbers 1193
Shopping & Services 1193
Time & Dates 1193
Transport 1194
Tamil 1194
Script & Transliteration 1194
Pronunciation 1194
Accommodation 1194
Emergencies 1195
Conversation & Essentials 1195
Directions 1195
Numbers 1195
Shopping & Services 1195
Time & Dates 1195
Transport 1196
© Lonely Planet Publications
India language - Trang 2
Để xem tài liệu đầy đủ. Xin vui lòng
India language - Người đăng: tai-lieu-mien-phi
5 Tài liệu rất hay! Được đăng lên bởi - 1 giờ trước Đúng là cái mình đang tìm. Rất hay và bổ ích. Cảm ơn bạn!
16 Vietnamese
India language 9 10 172