Ktl-icon-tai-lieu

The Marquesas

Được đăng lên bởi luan-van
Số trang: 15 trang   |   Lượt xem: 1052 lần   |   Lượt tải: 0 lần
© Lonely Planet Publications
202



History

The Marquesas
Paul Gauguin, Herman Melville, Robert Louis Stephenson, Jack London, Thor Heyerdahl,
Jacques Brel… For the past 170 years, the Marquesas have offered an escape for artists,
writers, adventurers and musicians.

The dramatic landscapes of the six inhabited islands are drier and steeper than the Society
and Austral Islands. With no barrier reef and no protective lagoon, the feeling here is wild and
earthbound. In the northern group of Nuku Hiva, ’Ua Pou and ’Ua Huka, the land is a desert of
low shrubs surrounding sharp basalt peaks and pinnacles; only the river valleys are lush and
habitable. South, Hiva Oa, Tahuata and Fatu Hiva are carpeted by fruit trees, ferns and flowers.
With few introduced invasive insect or bird species, fruit such as mangoes, oranges, limes,
tamarind, papayas and bananas load down the trees, and colourful birds, often unique to their
island, soar low in the branches. Horses and goats run wild over the entire archipelago.
The Marquesas is not a beach destination. There are a few enticing stretches of sand,
but they are invariably infested with nono, a small, aggressive biting fly that the locals will
tell you is fiercer than a lion. It’s best to stay in the mountains and valleys where there are
endless opportunities for hiking, horse-riding, exploring the almost overwhelming number
of archaeological sites or simply discovering this mysteriously wonderful culture.
HIGHLIGHTS
• Piecing together Marquesan history
through archaeological remains, such as
Iipona (p225)
• Riding horseback through the jungle
valleys of ‘Ua Huka (p216) to find hidden
petroglyphs

Nuku
Hiva
’Ua Huka

• Following the trails of Melville in Nuku
Hiva (p209) and Gauguin in Hiva Oa (p224)
• Hiking across windswept ridges and
into ancient volcanic craters in
Nuku Hiva (p211)
• Diving with the Pygmy Orcas (p62)
at Nuku Hiva

Hiva Oa

Iipona

merchant vessel took on fresh supplies on
Tahuata and then landed on ’Ua Pou. In
1797 William Crook, a young Protestant
pastor with the London Missionary Society
(LMS), landed on Tahuata. Although his
attempts at evangelism were unsuccessful,
he recorded some irreplaceable impressions
of Marquesan society.
French interest in the region grew as a
means of countering English expansion in
the Pacific. After a reconnaissance voyage in
1838, Rear Admiral Abel Dupetit-Thouars
took possession of Tahuata in 1842 in the
name of King Louis-Philippe.
The Marquesas...
THE MARQUESAS
202
THE MARQUESAS
www.lonelyplanet.com
HIGHLIGHTS
Piecing together Marquesan history
through archaeological remains, such as
Iipona ( p225 )
Riding horseback through the jungle
valleys of ‘Ua Huka ( p216 ) to find hidden
petroglyphs
Following the trails of Melville in Nuku
Hiva ( p209 ) and Gauguin in Hiva Oa ( p224 )
Hiking across windswept ridges and
into ancient volcanic craters in
Nuku Hiva ( p211 )
Diving with the Pygmy Orcas ( p62 )
at Nuku Hiva
The Marquesas
Paul Gauguin, Herman Melville, Robert Louis Stephenson, Jack London, Thor Heyerdahl,
Jacques Brel… For the past 170 years, the Marquesas have offered an escape for artists,
writers, adventurers and musicians.
With a language considerably different from Tahitian and cultural variances in everything
from cuisine to dance, the Marquesas would be considered a separate country from Tahiti
if it were not under the same blanket of French power. Marquesans don’t see Tahiti as the
centre of their world as do the inhabitants of the other archipelagos of French Polynesia.
The dramatic landscapes of the six inhabited islands are drier and steeper than the Society
and Austral Islands. With no barrier reef and no protective lagoon, the feeling here is wild and
earthbound. In the northern group of Nuku Hiva, ’Ua Pou and ’Ua Huka, the land is a desert of
low shrubs surrounding sharp basalt peaks and pinnacles; only the river valleys are lush and
habitable. South, Hiva Oa, Tahuata and Fatu Hiva are carpeted by fruit trees, ferns and flowers.
With few introduced invasive insect or bird species, fruit such as mangoes, oranges, limes,
tamarind, papayas and bananas load down the trees, and colourful birds, often unique to their
island, soar low in the branches. Horses and goats run wild over the entire archipelago.
The Marquesas is not a beach destination. There are a few enticing stretches of sand,
but they are invariably infested with nono, a small, aggressive biting fly that the locals will
tell you is fiercer than a lion. It’s best to stay in the mountains and valleys where there are
endless opportunities for hiking, horse-riding, exploring the almost overwhelming number
of archaeological sites or simply discovering this mysteriously wonderful culture.
Hiva Oa
Hiva
Nuku
Iipona
’Ua Huka
History
Among the first islands to be settled by
the Polynesians during their great South
Pacific migrations, the Marquesas served
as a dispersal point for the whole Polynes-
ian triangle from Hawaii to Easter Island
and New Zealand. Estimates of the islands’
initial colonisation vary from prehistory to
between AD 300 and 600.
The Marquesas’ isolation was broken
in 1595 when Spanish navigator Alvaro
de Mendaña y Neira sighted Fatu Hiva by
pure chance. This initial, unexpected con-
tact ended in the death of several island-
ers. Mendaña’s fleet then sailed along past
Motane and Hiva Oa, and anchored for
around 10 days in Vaitahu Bay on Tahuata.
Mendaña christened these four islands Las
Marquesas de Mendoza in honour of his
sponsor, the viceroy of Peru, García Hur-
tado de Mendoza, Marquis of Cañete.
In 1774 Captain Cook lingered for four
days on Tahuata during his second voy-
age. Fortunately, he formed a more cordial
relationship with the islanders. Ingraham,
the American commander of the Hope,
‘discovered’ the northern group of the
Marquesas in 1791, arriving slightly ahead
of Frenchman Étienne Marchand, whose
merchant vessel took on fresh supplies on
Tahuata and then landed on ’Ua Pou. In
1797 William Crook, a young Protestant
pastor with the London Missionary Society
(LMS), landed on Tahuata. Although his
attempts at evangelism were unsuccessful,
he recorded some irreplaceable impressions
of Marquesan society.
French interest in the region grew as a
means of countering English expansion in
the Pacific. After a reconnaissance voyage in
1838, Rear Admiral Abel Dupetit-Thouars
took possession of Tahuata in 1842 in the
name of King Louis-Philippe.
The Marquesas were quickly marginal-
ised in favour of Pape’ete for geographical,
economic and strategic reasons. Only the
Catholic missionaries, who had been active
since their arrival on Tahuata in 1838, perse-
vered. Their evangelising endeavours were
more fruitful than those of their Protestant
rivals and Catholicism became, and still is,
firmly entrenched in the Marquesas.
Upon contact with Western influences,
the foundations of Marquesan society col-
lapsed. Whaling crews brought alcohol, fire-
arms and syphilis. In a stunning decline the
population plummeted from around 18,000
in 1842 to 5264 in 1887 and 2096 in 1926.
MARQUESAN HANDICRAFTS
If there is one place in French Polynesia where it’s really possible to spend some cash, it’s the
Marquesas. Ti’i (sacred sculptures), pestles, umete (bowls), adzes, spears, clubs, fishhooks and
other items are carved from rosewood, tou (dark, hard-grained wood), bone or volcanic stone.
These treasures are pieces of art, items you will keep for a lifetime. Less-expensive buys include
seed necklaces and umu hei, an assortment of fragrant plant material such as ylang-ylang, vanilla,
pieces of pineapple covered in sandalwood powder, and various other fruits and plants, held
together with a plant fibre. You can use umu hei to perfume a room or tie in your hair. Fatu Hiva
prides itself on being the only island in French Polynesia to have perpetuated the manufacture
of tapa, cloth made from beaten bark and decorated with traditional designs.
In most villages there is a small fare artisanal (craft centre) where you can shop around. It
may open only when requested or when the Aranui is in port. It’s also well worth approaching
craftspeople directly. With a little luck you may see them working in their studios but be aware
that the amount of stock they carry is variable. Twice a year, usually in June and November, they
participate in Marquesan craft exhibitions in Pape’ete and it takes some time to replenish their
stocks. Some work is done to order only, so if you stay several days on an island it’s worth mak-
ing a visit as soon as you arrive.
Bring enough cash because you cannot pay by credit card. Prices may be relatively high but
they’re still lower than in Pape’ete and are really worth it for the time and artistic effort put into
the works. Expect to pay at least 1500 to 2000 CFP for a small tapa piece (up to 10,000 CFP for
a piece 1m long), 3000 CFP for a small 15cm ti’i (and up to 60,000 CFP for a large one) and 5000
CFP for a bowl or plate of about 50cm. Bargaining is not a Pacific tradition so don’t expect to
be able to beat the prices down very much.
THE MARQUESAS •• History 203
© Lonely Planet Publications
The Marquesas - Trang 2
Để xem tài liệu đầy đủ. Xin vui lòng
The Marquesas - Người đăng: luan-van
5 Tài liệu rất hay! Được đăng lên bởi - 1 giờ trước Đúng là cái mình đang tìm. Rất hay và bổ ích. Cảm ơn bạn!
15 Vietnamese
The Marquesas 9 10 169