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ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICALMETHODS

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ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICALMETHODS

ALTERNATIVE
TOXICOLOGICAL
METHODS

Edited by

Harry Salem
Sidney A. Katz

CRC PR E S S
Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.
“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s
collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”

ISBN 0-203-00879-0 Master e-book ISBN

Dedication

Preface

The Editors

Contributors

Contents

PART I
Progress in the Validation and Regulatory
Acceptance of Alternatives

2

ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS

CHAPTER

1

Historical Developments in the Humane
Care and Use of Research Animals:
The First 4000 Years

CONTENTS

BIBLICAL ORIGINS

3

4

ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS

Table 1.1 Chronology for the Enactment of Animal Welfare Legislation
Year

State

Year

State

Year

State

1828
1835
1838
1938
1842
1845
1848
1851
1851
1852
1854
1856
1857
1858
1859
1859
1860
1861

New York
Massachusetts
Connneticut
Wisconsin
New Hampshire
Missouri
Virginia
Iowa
Minnesota
Kentucky
Vermont
Texas
Rhode Island
Tennessee
Kansas
Washington
Pennsylvania
Nevada

1864
1864
1867
1868
1868
1869
1871
1871
1871
1872
1873
1873
1873
1875
1879
1879
1880

Idaho
Oregon
New Jersey
California
West Virginia
Illinois
District of Columbia
Michigan
Montana
Colorado
Delaware
Indiana
Nebraska
Georgia
Arkansas
Louisiana
Mississippi

1880
1881
1881
1883
1883
1884
1887
1887
1889
1890
1891
1893
1895
1898
1913
1913
1921

Ohio
North Carolina
South Carolina
Alabama
Maine
Hawaii
New Mexico
South Dakota
Florida
Maryland
North Dakota
Oklahoma
Wyoming
Utah
Alaska
Arizona
Virgin Islands

COLONIAL AMERICA

VICTORIAN ENGLAND

THE FIRST 4000 YEARS

5

6

ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS

RUSSELL AND BURCH

THE THREE Rs

THE FIRST 4000 YEARS

7

REFERENCES

CHAPTER

2

A History of Interagency Approaches
to Alternatives and Establishment of the
Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

9

10

ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS

ESTABLISHMENT OF IRAG

A HISTORY OF INTERAGENCY APPROACHES TO ALTERNATIVES

IRAG WORKSHOPS

11

12

ALTERNATIVE TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS

EVOLUTION OF ICCVAM

A HISTORY OF INTERAGENCY APPROACHES TO ALTERNATIVES

REFERENCES

13

CHAPTER

3

The Interagency Coordinating Committee
on the Validation of Alternative
Methods (ICCVAM): Recent Progress
in the Evaluation of Alternative
Toxicity Testing Methods

CONTENTS

15

16

ALTERNATIVE TOXICO...