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Subneting & VLSM

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Subnetting,
VLSM and Troubleshooting

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Objectives
- Subnetting basics
- How to create subnets
- Subnet masks and CIDR
• Class C subnetting
• Class B subnetting
• VLSM
• Summarization
• Troubleshooting IP addressing

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Subnetting Basics

• Benefits of subnetting include:
– Reduced network traffic
– Optimized network performance
– Simplified management
– Facilitated spanning of large geographical distances.

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How To Create Subnets
Take bits from the host portion of the IP address and
reserve the to divine the subnet address.

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Understanding the Powers of 2

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Subnet Masks
• Used to define which part of the host address will be
used as the subnet address.
• A 32-bit value that allows the recipient of IP packets to
distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address
from the host ID portion.

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Default Subnet Masks

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Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

Used to allocate an amount of IP address space to a given
entity (company, home, customer, etc).
Example: 192.168.10.32/28
The slash notation (/) means how many bits are turned on
(1s) and tells you what your subnet mask is.

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CIDR Values

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Subnetting Class C Addresses
In a Class C address, only 8 bits are available for defining the
hosts. Remember that subnet bits start at the left and go to the
right, without skipping bits. This means that the only Class C
subnet masks can be the following:
Binary Decimal CIDR
--------------------------------------------------------10000000 = 128 /25
11000000 = 192 /26
11100000 = 224 /27
11110000 = 240 /28
11111000 = 248 /29
11111100 = 252 /30
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Class C 192 mask examples
Subnet

Host

Meaning

00

000000 = 0

The network (do this first)

00

000001 = 1

The first valid host

00

111110 = 62

The last valid host

00

111111 = 63

The broadcast address (do
this second)

Subnet

Host

Meaning

01

000000 = 64

The network

01

000001 = 65

The first valid host

01

111110 = 126

The last valid host

01

111111 = 127

The broadcast address

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Class C 192 mask examples
Subnet

Host

Meaning

10

000000 = 128

The subnet address

10

000001 = 129

The first valid host

10

111110 = 190

The last valid host

10

111111 = 191

The broadcast address

Subnet

Host

Meaning

11

000000 = 192

The subnet address

11

000001 = 193

The first valid hos...
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Subnetting,
VLSM and Troubleshooting
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