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Measurement and
Instrumentation Principles

To Jane, Nicola and Julia

Measurement and
Instrumentation
Principles
Alan S. Morris

OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON

JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE

NEW DELHI

Butterworth-Heinemann
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041
A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd
A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group

First published 2001
 Alan S. Morris 2001

All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced in any material form (including
photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic
means and whether or not transiently or incidentally
to some other use of this publication) without the
written permission of the copyright holder except
in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a
licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd,
90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE.
Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission
to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed
to the publishers
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7506 5081 8

Typeset in 10/12pt Times Roman by Laser Words, Madras, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain

Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Part 1: Principles of Measurement
1 INTRODUCTION TO MEASUREMENT
1.1
Measurement units
1.2
Measurement system applications
1.3
Elements of a measurement system
1.4
Choosing appropriate measuring instruments
2 INSTRUMENT TYPES AND PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS
2.1
Review of instrument types
2.1.1
Active and passive instruments
2.1.2
Null-type and deflection-type instruments
2.1.3
Analogue and digital instruments
2.1.4
Indicating instruments and instruments with a
signal output
2.1.5
Smart and non-smart instruments
2.2
Static characteristics of instruments
2.2.1
Accuracy and inaccuracy (measurement uncertainty)
2.2.2
Precision/repeatability/reproducibility
2.2.3
Tolerance
2.2.4
Range or span
2.2.5
Linearity
2.2.6
Sensitivity of measurement
2.2.7
Threshold
2.2.8
Resolution
2.2.9
Sensitivity to disturbance
2.2.10 Hysteresis effects
2.2.11 Dead space
2.3
Dynamic characteristics of instruments

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vi

Contents

2.4
2.5

2.3.1
Zero order instrument
2.3.2
First order instrument
2.3.3
Second order instrument
Necessity for calibration
Self-test ...