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Britannica - Islamic Beliefs and Practices

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Published in 2010 by Britannica Educational Publishing
(a trademark of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.)
in association with Rosen Educational Services, LLC
29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010.
Copyright © 2010 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica,
and the Thistle logo are registered trademarks of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Rosen Educational Services materials copyright © 2010 Rosen Educational Services, LLC.
All rights reserved.
Distributed exclusively by Rosen Educational Services.
For a listing of additional Britannica Educational Publishing titles, call toll free (800) 237-9932.
First Edition
Britannica Educational Publishing
Michael I. Levy: Executive Editor
Marilyn L. Barton: Senior Coordinator, Production Control
Steven Bosco: Director, Editorial Technologies
Lisa S. Braucher: Senior Producer and Data Editor
Yvette Charboneau: Senior Copy Editor
Kathy Nakamura: Manager, Media Acquisition
Matt Stefon: Assistant Editor, Religion
Rosen Educational Services
Joanne Randolph: Editor
Hope Lourie Killcoyne: Senior Editor and Project Manager
Nelson Sá: Art Director
Matthew Cauli: Designer
Introduction by Janey Levy
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Islamic beliefs and practices / edited by Matt Stefon.—1st ed.
p. cm.—(The Islamic world)
“In association with Britannica Educational Publishing, Rosen Educational Services.”
ISBN 978-1-61530-060-0 (eBook)
1. Islam—Customs and practices. 2. Islam—Doctrines. I. Stefon, Matt.
BP174.I87 2010
297—dc22
2009038290
On the cover: The Qur’an, the sacred scripture of Islam, is for Muslims the word of Allah
(God) as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. The word Qur’an (also spelled Koran) is
Arabic for “recitation.” Boryana Katsarova/AFP/Getty Images

CONTENTS
Introduction
Chapter One:
Muhammad: The Seal
of the Prophets
The Prophet’s Stature
in the Muslim Community
The Prophet’s Life
Mi‘raj
Hijrah
Chapter Two:
God’s Word to Humanity
The Qur’an
No God but God: Allah
Tawhid
God and Humanity
Mahdi
The Prophet’s
Deeds and Words

8

17
18
20
28
31

39

38
39
46
48
49
56

74

58

Chapter Three:
Piety and Ritual in
Islamic Life
The Five Pillars of Islam
Holy Days
Sacred Space
Mecca
Life and Death

67
67
75
79
81
82

Chapter Four:
Community and Society
Islam and Community
Community Figures

88
89
95

86

Caliph	
Ottoman Empire	
Islam and Society	
Law	
	 Bid‘ah	
	 Usul al-Fiqh	
	 Systemization
	 and Administration	
	 Hanafiyah	
	 Modern Reforms
	 of Shari‘ah	
Ch...
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