Ktl-icon-tai-lieu

Ethiopia eritrea language

Được đăng lên bởi luyen-thi-dai-hoc
Số trang: 6 trang   |   Lượt xem: 595 lần   |   Lượt tải: 0 lần
© Lonely Planet Publications
378



Language

u
ay
ai
THE ETHIOPIC SYLLABARY

Ethiopian Amharic
Pronunciation
Accommodation
Conversation & Essentials
Directions
Health
Emergencies – Amharic
Language Difficulties
Numbers
Shopping & Services
Time & Days
Transport
Tigrinya
Pronunciation
Accommodation
Conversation & Essentials
Directions
Health
Emergencies – Tigrinya
Language Difficulties
Numbers
Shopping & Services
Time & Days
Transport

378
378
379
379
380
380
380
380
380
381
381
381
382
382
382
382
383
383
383
383
383
383
384
384

ETHIOPIAN AMHARIC
Amharic is Ethiopia’s national language. It
belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family,
in the Semitic language sub-group, which
includes Arabic, Hebrew and Assyrian.
While regional languages such as Oromo,
Somali and Tigrinya are also important,
Amharic is the most widely used and understood language throughout the country.
It is the mother tongue of the 12 million or
so Amhara people in the country’s central
and northwestern regions, and a second
language for about one third of the total
population.
Amharic word endings vary according to
the gender and number of people you’re
speaking to. Gender is indicated in this
guide by the abbreviations ‘m’ (to a male),
‘f’ (to a female) and ‘pl’ (to more than one

The unique Ethiopic script is the basis for
the alphabets of Amharic, Tigrinya and
Tigré. The basic Ethiopic syllabary has 26
characters; Amharic includes another seven,
and Tigrinya another five characters to
cover sounds that are specific to those
languages.
The alphabet is made up of root characters
representing consonants. By adding lines or
circles (representing the vowel sounds) to
these characters, seven different syllables
can be generated for each consonant (eg ha,
he, hë, heu, hi, ho, hu). As with Roman script,
the characters are written from left to right
on a page.

person, regardless of gender). There are
also general modes of address that can be
either informal or polite, indicated by the
abbreviations ‘inf’ and ‘pol’ respectively.
For a more comprehensive guide to the
language, get a copy of Lonely Planet’s
Ethiopian Amharic Phrasebook. It has useful introductory sections on pronunciation
and grammar, and includes Amharic script
throughout.

PRONUNCIATION

While many of the sounds of Amharic will
be familiar to you, there are some sounds
for which there are no English equivalents.
Keep your ears tuned to the way Ethiopians
pronounce their language – this will be a
good start ...
378
CONTENTS
LANGUAGE
www.lonelyplanet.com
LANGUAGE
Language
ETHIOPIAN AMHARIC
Amharic is Ethiopia’s national language. It
belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language family,
in the Semitic language sub-group, which
includes Arabic, Hebrew and Assyrian.
While regional languages such as Oromo,
Somali and Tigrinya are also important,
Amharic is the most widely used and un-
derstood language throughout the country.
It is the mother tongue of the 12 million or
so Amhara people in the country’s central
and northwestern regions, and a second
language for about one third of the total
population.
Amharic word endings vary according to
the gender and number of people you’re
speaking to. Gender is indicated in this
guide by the abbreviations ‘m’ (to a male),
‘f’ (to a female) and ‘pl’ (to more than one
person, regardless of gender). There are
also general modes of address that can be
either informal or polite, indicated by the
abbreviations ‘inf’ and ‘pol’ respectively.
For a more comprehensive guide to the
language, get a copy of Lonely Planet’s
Ethiopian Amharic Phrasebook. It has use-
ful introductory sections on pronunciation
and grammar, and includes Amharic script
throughout.
PRONUNCIATION
While many of the sounds of Amharic will
be familiar to you, there are some sounds
for which there are no English equivalents.
Keep your ears tuned to the way Ethiopians
pronounce their language – this will be a
good start in mastering pronunciation.
In general, stress falls equally on each
syllable. Like English, a raised tone at the
end of a sentence signifies a question.
Vowels
a as in ‘mamma’
e as in ‘let’
ë as the ‘a’ in ‘ago’; shorter and flatter
than eu below
eu as the ‘e’ in ‘her’, with no ‘r’ sound
i as in ‘bit’
o as in ‘hot’
ō a cross between the ‘oa’ in ‘coat’ and
the ‘au’ in ‘haul’
u as in ‘flute’ but shorter
ay as the ‘ai’ in ‘bait’
ai as in ‘aisle’
Consonants
ch as in ‘church’
g as in ‘get’
gw as in ‘Gwen’
h as in ‘hit’; at the end of a sentence it’s
like a short puff of breath
kw as the ‘q’ in ‘queen’
j as in ‘jump’
s as in ‘plus’ (never a ‘z’ sound)
sh as in ‘shirt’
z as in ‘zoo’
ny as the ‘ni’ in ‘onion’
r a rolled ‘r’
a glottal stop, ie a momentary closing
of the throat, like the ‘tt’ in the
Cockney pronunciation of ‘bottle’
You should also be aware of the Amharic
consonant sounds that have no English
equivalents – ‘glottalic’ or ‘explosive’ vari-
ants of some consonants, made by tighten-
ing and releasing the vocal chords. To
explain these sounds in any depth would
take more space than we have here so they
haven’t been included in this guide. Instead,
their nearest English equivalents have been
used.
ACCOMMODATION
Where is a ...? ... yet nō?
hotel hotel
good hotel tëru hotel
cheap hotel rëkash hotel
bed alga
room këfël
Do you have ...?/ ... alleu?
Is there ...?
a room/bed
alga
a single room and alga
a room with two beds baleu huleutt alga
a quiet room seut yaleu këfël
showers shaweur
water for bathing meutateubiya wuha
hot water muk wuha
How much is the alga leu ... sëntë nō?
room/bed for ...?
one night
and mata
one week and samënt
Does it include kursënëm yicheumëral?
breakfast?
I’d like to see the
këflun mayet ëfeullëgallō
room.
Can I see a different
lela këfël mayet ëchëlallō?
room?
I leave tomorrow.
neugeu ëhedallō
CONVERSATION & ESSENTIALS
Hello/Greetings. tenastëllën (lit: ‘may you be
given health’)
Hello. seulam (lit: ‘peace be with you’)
Hello. tadiyass (inf)
How are you? deuhna neuh? (m)
deuhna neush? (f)
deuhna not? (pol)
deuhna nachu? (pl)
I’m fine. deuhna
Good night. deuhna deur (m)
deuhna deuri (f)
deuhna yideuru (pol)
deuhna deuru (pl)
Goodbye. deuhna seunbët (m)
deuhna seunbëch (f)
deuhna yiseunbëtu (pol)
deuhna seunbëtu (pl)
Goodbye/See you. chow (inf, as in Italian ciao)
Have a nice trip. meulkam guzo
Yes. awo
OK. ëshi
No. (not the case/not so) ai (pronounced ‘eye’)
No. (not there/not yeulleum
available)
Maybe. mënalbut
Please. ëbakëh (m)
ëbakësh (f)
ëbakon (pol)
ëbakachu (pl)
Thank you. ameuseugënallō
Thank you very beutam ameuseugënallō
much.
Don’t mention it.
mënëm aideuleuhm
Excuse me. yikërta
Sorry. aznallō
What’s your name? sëmëh man nō? (m)
sëmësh man nō? (f)
sëmëwot man nō? (pol)
My name is ... sëme ... nō
What country are you keu yet ageur neuh? (m)
from? keu yet ageur neush? (f)
keu yet ageur not? (pol)
I’m from ... keu ...
Are you married? ageubtëhal? (m)
ageubtëshal? (f)
Ethiopian Amharic 378
Pronunciation 378
Accommodation 379
Conversation & Essentials 379
Directions 380
Health 380
Emergencies – Amharic 380
Language Difficulties 380
Numbers 380
Shopping & Services 381
Time & Days 381
Transport 381
Tigrinya 382
Pronunciation 382
Accommodation 382
Conversation & Essentials 382
Directions 383
Health 383
Emergencies – Tigrinya 383
Language Difficulties 383
Numbers 383
Shopping & Services 383
Time & Days 384
Transport 384
THE ETHIOPIC SYLLABARY
The unique Ethiopic script is the basis for
the alphabets of Amharic, Tigrinya and
Tigré. The basic Ethiopic syllabary has 26
characters; Amharic includes another seven,
and Tigrinya another five characters to
cover sounds that are specific to those
languages.
The alphabet is made up of root characters
representing consonants. By adding lines or
circles (representing the vowel sounds) to
these characters, seven different syllables
can be generated for each consonant (eg
ha,
he, , heu, hi, ho, hu). As with Roman script,
the characters are written from left to right
on a page.
ETHIOPIAN AMHARIC •• Accommodation 379
© Lonely Planet Publications
Ethiopia eritrea language - Trang 2
Để xem tài liệu đầy đủ. Xin vui lòng
Ethiopia eritrea language - Người đăng: luyen-thi-dai-hoc
5 Tài liệu rất hay! Được đăng lên bởi - 1 giờ trước Đúng là cái mình đang tìm. Rất hay và bổ ích. Cảm ơn bạn!
6 Vietnamese
Ethiopia eritrea language 9 10 570